IJCRAR is now DOI (CrossRef) registered Research Journal. The DOIs are assigned to all published IJCRAR Articles.

INDEXED IN INDEX COPERNICUS - ICI Journals Master List 2016 - IJCRAR--ICV 2016: 81.15 For more details click here

Abstract            Volume:10  Issue-3  Year-2022         Original Research Articles

Online ISSN : 2347 - 3215
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
Email : editorijcret@gmail.com

Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Anacardium occidentale nut Shell Extract and its Enzyme Responses in Periplaneta americana (Cockroach)
E. Adeleke1, 2*, I. A. Ogunmola1 and G. A. Berena2
1Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
2Biochemistry Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
*Corresponding author

Synthetic pesticides induce resistance in target insects, and toxicity in untargeted organisms. There is scarce information on the enzyme mechanisms involved in mortality response of Periplaneta americana to Anacardium occidentale nut shell extract (AONSE). The present study characterized the chemical constituents of AONSE, and investigated its in-vitro effects on selected enzymes of P. americana. The AONSE was subjected to Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Gas chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Two portions of de-winged adult Periplaneta americana were separately homogenized with phosphate buffer and Tris-HCl buffer, followed by cold centrifugation. In-vitro effects of AONSE (concentrations 10 - 80 µg/ml) on catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione -S- transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CE) in the homogenates were determined spectrophotometrically. Cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were used as standard insecticides. The FT-IR spectrum of AONSE shows five prominent peaks at 1017.6cm-1(ether), 1449.9 cm-1(aromatic ring), 2834.6 cm-1(methyl stretching), 2946.5 cm1(methyl bending) and 3324.8 cm-1(carboxylic group), while UV spectroscopy shows maximum absorption between 211.4 and 246.4 nm. The HPLC result reveals presence of three flavonoids including catechin, rutin, and quercetin. The GC analysis shows that AONSE predominantly contains phenolics and alkenes, while GC-FID spectrum shows major constituents as cardol (18.10%), cardanol (8.30%), beta-sitosterol (9.09%), lutein (10.38%) and anacardic acid (39.05%).The AONSE, CYP and CPF significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the activities of catalase and AChE, while AONSE alone increased SOD and GST activities in P.americana. The AONSE and CYP significantly reduced Carboxylesterase activity relative to control. The present study reveals that A. occidentale nut shell extract is rich in catechin, rutin, quercetin, cardol, cardanol, beta-sitosterol, lutein and anacardic acid, and could induce oxidative stress, and inhibit activities of cholinergic and carboxylesterase enzymes in Periplaneta americana.

Keywords: Chemical elucidation,Anacardium occidentale, Periplaneta americana, antioxidant enzymes, esterases
Download this article as Download

How to cite this article:

Adeleke, G. E., I. A. Ogunmola and Berena, G. A. 2022. Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Anacardium occidentale nut Shell Extract and its Enzyme Responses in Periplaneta americana (Cockroach).Int.J.Curr.Res.Aca.Rev. 10(3): 1-14
doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcrar.2022.1003.001
Copyright: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.